Optative: Other Meanings
The grammar books only distinguish two meanings. But this restriction to two meanings was partly dependent on the belief that the optative is parallel to the subjunctive, and I don't believe this parallelism exists. Considering the whole range of optative sentences, several examples do not fit into the traditional model. I have divided these into two types:
  1. Objective deontic
  This is non-performative deontic meaning: it is a statement reporting the existence of an obligation.
  2. Dynamic
  This category mainly refers to the capabilities of the subject and is usually translated by English 'can'.
I 2.250 τὼ οὐκ ἂν βασιλῆας ἀνὰ στόμ' ἔχων ἀγορεύοις
καί σφιν ὀνείδεά τε προφέροις, νόστόν τε φυλάσσοις.
You must stop taking the names of kings in vain, insulting them, all the time looking for a chance to get home.
O 20.135 οὐκ ἄν μιν νῦν, τέκνον, ἀναίτιον αἰτιόῳο. Child, you shouldn’t hold her responsible this time.
I 1.100 τότε κέν μιν ἱλασσάμενοι πεπίθοιμεν. Then we can persuade the gods with our propitiations

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